Table of Contents


Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the largest cause of death globally, affecting millions of people each year. This condition is a major health concern in Singapore, especially among the middle-aged and elderly. In this article, I will provide a thorough overview of CAD, including its causes, symptoms, and therapies, with a special emphasis on CAD therapy in Singapore. I will also emphasize the quality care provided at The Harley Street Heart & Vascular Centre, ensuring that you are well-informed about your options.

What is Coronary Artery Disease?

Coronary Artery Disease, or CAD, is a disorder in which the coronary arteries that feed blood to the heart muscle narrow or become blocked. This narrowing is usually caused by atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque—a mixture of fat, cholesterol, and other substances—accumulates on the inner walls of the arteries. Over time, this buildup can reduce blood flow to the heart, resulting in angina (chest pain), heart attacks, and other significant consequences.

Coronary artery disease Singapore develops over time and may go unrecognized until it severely compromises heart function. It is a chronic condition that requires continuing care to avoid serious consequences. Understanding the course of CAD and available treatment options is critical for both those at risk and those who have been diagnosed.

Current Statistics of Coronary Artery Disease in Singapore

Singapore, like many industrialized countries, is facing an increasing burden of cardiovascular illnesses, including CAD. According to the Singapore Heart Foundation, heart disease, particularly CAD, is one of the leading causes of death in the country. In 2019, cardiovascular diseases caused 29.3% of all fatalities in Singapore, with CAD playing a prominent role.

CAD prevalence in Singapore is driven by a number of factors, including an aging population, rising rates of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, as well as lifestyle choices including smoking and physical inactivity. According to the Ministry of Health Singapore (MOH), the incidence of coronary artery disease Singapore rises with age, with individuals over 60 being particularly vulnerable. As Singapore’s population ages fast, the burden of CAD is likely to rise, increasing awareness and effective management of this condition more important than ever.

Causes of Coronary Artery Disease

Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary artery disease (CAD), although various risk factors contribute to its development, which is especially visible in Singapore, where lifestyle and dietary habits have a big impact on health.

  1. Age: The risk of coronary artery disease grows with age, making Singapore’s senior population more susceptible.
  2. Gender: Men have a higher risk of CAD than pre-menopausal women. However, the risk for women increases after menopause, which is consistent with trends in coronary artery disease in Singapore.
  3. Family History: Having a family history of heart disease considerably raises one’s chance of acquiring CAD, which is a problem across demographic lines, including in Singapore.
  4. Smoking: Tobacco use is a key risk factor for CAD, and the impact is just as severe in Singapore, where public health programs are aimed at reducing smoking.
  5. High Blood Pressure: Hypertension can damage arteries over time, increasing their susceptibility to atherosclerosis, a major issue in Singapore’s coronary artery disease management.
  6. High Cholesterol Levels: High levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol can cause plaque formation, which is a prevalent issue in Singaporean diets.
  7. Diabetes: Diabetes considerably raises the risk of CAD. In Singapore, the rising incidence of diabetes has become a serious public health concern, as have rising CAD rates.
  8. Obesity: Excess weight, particularly in the abdomen, raises the risk of CAD. This is especially pertinent in Singapore, where modern lifestyle choices influence obesity rates.
  9. Inactive Lifestyle: Physical inactivity is linked to various risk factors, including obesity and high blood pressure, both of which are common in Singapore’s urban lifestyle.
  10. Unhealthy Diet: A diet heavy in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol can raise the risk of coronary artery disease. Westernized eating habits in Singapore have been related to an increased risk of coronary heart disease.
  11. Stress: Chronic stress can contribute to the development of CAD. In a fast-paced city like Singapore, stress management is critical for avoiding CAD.

Understanding these risk factors can assist individuals and healthcare practitioners in Singapore in taking preventative actions to lower the chance of developing coronary heart disease. In Singapore, sustaining heart health requires frequent physical activity, a balanced diet, stress management, and monitoring of health issues.

Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease

The symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD) vary according on the degree of the disorder. In Singapore, where lifestyle factors frequently contribute to the prevalence of CAD, some people may not develop symptoms until a major blockage occurs. Understanding common symptoms is critical for early detection and management.

  • Angina: The most frequent sign of coronary artery disease in Singapore, characterized by chest pain or discomfort that is usually brought on by physical exertion or stress. The pain may spread to the arms, neck, jaw, shoulder, and back. Recognizing this symptom is critical to successfully managing CAD in Singapore’s healthcare settings.
  • Shortness of Breath: Reduced blood supply to the heart can induce shortness of breath, especially during vigorous activity. This symptom is a common sign of coronary artery disease in Singapore, where high prevalence of urban lifestyle disorders including diabetes and hypertension exacerbate cardiovascular disease.
  • Heart Attack: A full blockage of a coronary artery can cause a heart attack, which is also a common medical emergency in Singapore. Symptoms may include severe chest pain, shortness of breath, perspiration, nausea, and lightheadedness. Immediate medical intervention is required and can be life-saving.

Fatigue, dizziness, and palpitations are additional symptoms that could suggest the development of coronary artery disease in Singapore. Individuals should seek medical attention as soon as possible after experiencing these symptoms. Recognizing and responding to these signs in Singapore, where health services are easily available, can help avert major problems linked with coronary artery disease. Awareness and education about CAD symptoms are critical components of public health programs to reduce the disease’s burden in Singapore.

CAD Treatment in Singapore

Singapore provides a wide choice of innovative treatments for coronary artery disease (CAD) that combine cutting-edge medical technology with highly competent healthcare experts. The purpose of CAD treatment in Singapore is to increase blood flow to the heart, alleviate symptoms, and avoid consequences like heart attacks. Treatments for CAD are divided into three categories: lifestyle changes, drugs, and medical procedures, each adapted to the specific needs of the Singapore patient group.

Lifestyle Changes

  • Lifestyle Modifications: Lifestyle changes are the first line of defense against CAD in Singapore. This includes:
  • Healthy Diet: Eating a diet low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, and sodium can help lower the risk of CAD. Focus on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
  • Regular Exercise: Regular exercise improves cardiovascular health. Aim to complete at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week.
  • Smoking Cessation: Quitting smoking greatly lowers the risk of coronary artery disease.
  • Weight Management: Keeping a healthy weight helps to control risk factors like diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol.
  • Stress Management: Techniques like yoga, meditation, and deep breathing can assist manage stress and lower the chance of aggravating coronary artery disease.


There are several drugs available in Singapore to address CAD and related risk factors:

  • Antiplatelet Drugs: Aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs help to prevent blood clotting.
  • Cholesterol-Lowering Medications: Statins, niacin, and other medications can help decrease LDL cholesterol.
  • Beta-Blockers: Medications that lower heart rate and blood pressure, reducing the heart’s strain.
  • ACE Inhibitors: ACE inhibitors lower blood pressure and put less load on the heart.
  • Calcium Channel Blockers: These drugs relax blood arteries, allowing more blood flow.
  • Nitrates: Nitroglycerin and other nitrates treat angina by relaxing and expanding the blood arteries.

Medical Procedures

When lifestyle changes and drugs are insufficient, medical operations may be required to treat coronary artery disease in Singapore.

Singapore’s healthcare system is well-equipped to provide these modern therapies, with a variety of solutions suited to each patient’s individual need. This comprehensive strategy ensures that Singaporeans with coronary artery disease have access to excellent medicines that can considerably enhance their quality of life.

Best CAD Treatment at The Harley Street Heart & Vascular Centre

The Harley Street Heart & Vascular Centre in Singapore is well-known for its comprehensive and innovative approach to cardiovascular care. The center has a comprehensive team of expert cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, and vascular specialists dedicated to offering personalised treatment programs for patients with CAD.

Why Choose the Harley Street Heart & Vascular Centre?

  1. Expertise: The centre’s team includes highly-qualified doctors with vast expertise treating severe cardiovascular problems.
  2. Advanced Technology: The centre is outfitted with cutting-edge diagnostic and therapeutic technology, ensuring precise diagnosis and effective treatment.
  3. Comprehensive Care: The center provides a comprehensive range of CAD care services, including preventative cardiology and advanced surgical techniques.
  4. Patient-Centered Approach: Treatment programs are customized to each patient’s specific needs, resulting in the best potential outcomes.

CAD Treatment Options at The Harley Street Heart and Vascular Centre

The Harley Street Heart & Vascular Centre is Singapore’s leading provider of coronary artery disease management services. The centre provides a wide spectrum of treatments tailored to each patient’s particular needs, ensuring that they receive the most effective CAD treatment possible.

  • Comprehensive Cardiac Assessments: The center uses modern imaging and diagnostic testing to precisely determine the severity of coronary artery disease. These assessments are critical in identifying the best treatment approach for each patient in Singapore.
  • Lifestyle and Risk Factor Management: Patients receive personalized strategies to assist them manage the risk factors linked with coronary artery disease. These plans include dietary suggestions, exercise programs, and lifestyle adjustments personalized to each individual’s needs, which serve to reduce the burden of CAD in Singapore’s diverse patient population.
  • Medical Therapy: Prescription drugs are an important element of the therapeutic program at the facility. These drugs are intended to alleviate symptoms and prevent the progression of coronary artery disease. Antiplatelet therapies, cholesterol-lowering pharmaceuticals, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and nitrates are among the options available, each selected depending on the patient’s unique health profile.
  • Minimally Invasive Operations: The center has the newest technology for performing angioplasty, stenting, and other minimally invasive operations. These procedures are critical for individuals with coronary artery disease in Singapore since they need less recovery time and pose less risks than standard surgery.
  • Surgical Options: For more complex cases of CAD, the center’s expert cardiac surgeons conduct procedures such as Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). These surgical treatments are crucial for patients whose illnesses cannot be treated with less invasive procedures.

The Harley Street Heart & Vascular Centre is dedicated to providing the best possible care to individuals with coronary artery disease in Singapore, using the most innovative and effective treatments available. Their method combines cutting-edge technology with tailored care plans, making it the top choice for CAD treatment in Singapore.

Frequently Asked Questions about CAD

1. What exactly is CAD?

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) occurs when the coronary arteries that feed blood to the heart muscle become constricted or obstructed owing to atherosclerosis.

2. What are the risk factors for CAD?

Risk factors include age, gender, family history, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, poor diet, and stress.

3. How is CAD diagnosed?

CAD is diagnosed using a medical history, physical examination, blood testing, and diagnostic procedures such electrocardiograms (ECG), stress tests, echocardiograms, and coronary angiography.

4. What are the symptoms of CAD?

Common signs include chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and a heart attack. Fatigue, dizziness, and palpitations are among the other possible symptoms.

5. How is CAD treated?

Lifestyle adjustments, drugs, and medical procedures like as angioplasty, stenting, and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are all viable treatment choices.

6. Can CAD be prevented?

Yes, CAD can be avoided by addressing risk factors such as a good diet, regular exercise, quitting smoking, lowering blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing stress.

7. What should I do if I have signs of CAD?

If you have symptoms like chest pain, shortness of breath, or indicators of a heart attack, seek medical assistance right once.


Coronary Artery Disease is a severe but controllable ailment. Individuals with CAD can live healthy lives with the proper education and medical care. In Singapore, innovative treatments and specialized institutes such as The Harley Street Heart & Vascular Centre provide hope and healing to those suffering from this ailment.

Understanding the origins, symptoms, and treatment choices is the first step toward successfully treating CAD and improving overall heart health. If you or a loved one are at risk for CAD, don’t be afraid to seek medical counsel and take proactive actions toward a healthier heart. Reach out to us at +65 6235 5300 to schedule an appointment with one of our esteemed cardiac specialists.

Written by: Dr Michael MacDonald MB ChB, BSc (Hons), MRCP (UK), MD (Research), FESC (Europe).  Dr MacDonald was trained in the UK and is a senior Consultant Cardiologist.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.